Vaccination and immunization is the process to initiate or augment resistance to an infectious disease.
The immune response protects the body against disease. Children are born with a natural immunity to the disease with the transmission of antibodies from mother to fetus through the placental barrier. This immunity is maintained during the period when children are breastfed.
To immunize is a way of triggering acquired immunity. This is a specialized form of immunity that provides long-lasting protection against specific antigens, responsible for certain diseases.
Small doses of antigen are administered (such as dead or weakened virus) in order to activate the immune memory (complex mechanism, which involves specialized blood cells that are able to recognize the antigen and respond quickly to its presence ).
Immune memory allows the body to quickly and efficiently react to future exposure to germs, toxins, among others, before they can cause damage (the body builds a defense against the disease). According to immunization information, vaccination is one of the best ways to protect against many diseases.
There are currently four different types of vaccines available:
- Live but weakened (attenuated) virus: They are used in the oral polio vaccine and the MMR vaccine (measles – rubella – mumps).
- Dead virus or bacteria (inactivated): As an example the pertussis vaccine, in which inactivated bacteria are used.
- Toxoid vaccines: contain a toxin produced by bacteria or viruses. Some examples are tetanus and diphtheria.
- Biosynthetic vaccines: contain synthetic substances. As an example, Hib (type B Haemophilus influenzae) is a biosynthetic vaccine containing two antigens that combine to form a “conjugate” molecule that prompts the immune system to produce antibodies effective against the disease.
Vaccines and Immunizations
Immunization and vaccination are safe. Like drugs or vitamins, vaccines can produce mild side effects. The most common are pain or tenderness in the area of application, fever. The benefits outweigh the possible risks.
It is important to banish myths and emphasize that studies found that immunization vaccines do not generate autism, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, allergies, asthma or permanent brain damage.
Vaccines use attenuated versions of microorganisms (viruses or bacteria), not only they do not weak but strength it by helping fight various infections.
Physician evaluates each patient before indicating vaccination, studying medical history, age and other personal characteristics. It is recommended to avoid its application temporarily if you suffer a moderate or severe acute disease, and absolute avoid if you have allergies to their
components, or Guillain-Barre syndrome.
The recommended immunization schedule may vary, as new and more effective vaccines are developed.
You need to consult with your doctor in order to get specific information on immunization you need.
- Influenza vaccines provide protection against influenza viruses. People of 6 months and older should be vaccinated against influenza every year. Immunity is established within two weeks after vaccination.
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or Prevnar 13 call) is recommended to protect infants and young children, and some adults with certain health conditions against pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal disease can cause severe health problems, including pneumonia and meningitis.
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide 23-valent vaccine protects against 23 pneumococcal serotypes (which are 90% of those who cause serious infections).
- Meningococoesta vaccine protects against meningococcal disease caused by four groups (A, C, Y, W 135).
- Vaccine against HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is one of two vaccines that can be given to prevent HPV. It may be given to both men and women. This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical cancer in women, if applied before exposure to the virus. In addition, it can prevent vaginal and vulvar cancer in women and genital warts and anal cancer in both men and women.
- Hepatitis A vaccine. Hepatitis A s a serious liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in the stool of persons with hepatitis A. It is usually spread by close personal contact and sometimes by eating food or drinking water containing HAV .
- Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis B infection, including liver cancer and the vaccine against hepatitis B cirrosis. It can be administered alone or with other vaccines in the same shot.
- Tdap can protect us from diphteria and tetanus. Diphteria can cause a thick layer on the back of the throat. This can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure and death. Tetanus (lockjaw) causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body
- Poliomyelitis (or polio) is a disease caused by a virus. The virus enters the body of a child (or an adult) through the mouth. Sometimes the virus does not cause serious illness. But sometimes it causes paralysis. Inactivated Polio Vaccine can prevent polio.
- MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine: These are infections that can trigger major diseases. Over 95% of children receiving the MMR will be protected against these three diseases for life.
- Pentavalent: It is a vaccine that combines five antigens. The preparation contains dead bacteria of Bordetella pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, surface antigen of hepatitis B virus and purified capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b. -It prevents against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections caused by type b.
- BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis. The vaccine can be administered to people at high risk of contracting tuberculosis. It is also used to treat gall bladder tumors or bladder cancer. This medicine may also be prescribed for other uses.
- Vaccine against yellow fever. Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is passed through the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever can cause fever and symptoms similar to the flu (influenza), jaundice (yellow skin or eyes), bleeding in various parts of the body, liver failure, kidney, respiratory system and other organs, death (in between 20% and 50% of serious cases).
- Typhoid fever vaccine: Typhoid fever is a serious illness. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi. Typhoid fever causes high fever, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid. One is an inactivated vaccine in the form of injection, and the other is the live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which is taken orally (by mouth).